The Mfantseman District is basically a low-lying area with loose quaternary sands. The area has an elevation lower than 60m above sea level. Along the coasts are cretaceous— Eocene marine sands with thin pebbly sands and some limestone. The District consists of upper and lower Birrimian rocks and intrusive Tarkwaian rocks. These rocks have metallogenetic materials (metals), which include:
Base metals such as talc and diamonds.
The Mfantseman District is drained by a number of rivers and streams including the Narkwa, Amisa (Ochi) and Bruka. The rivers Narkwa and Amisa drain into the sea via the Narkwa and Amisa lagoons at Narkwa and Amisano. The other rivers in the area are the Nkasaku, which empties into the Atufa lagoon in Saltpond, and Aworaba, which drains into Etsi lagoon in great Kormantse. Other lagoons in the area are the Eko near Anomabu, the Egya at Egyaa and Kwasinzema at Kormantse into which flow small streams and rivulets.
The Mfantseman District with its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean has mild temperatures, which range between 24° C and 28°C due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. It has a relative humidity of about 70 per cent. The district experiences double maxima rainfall with peaks in May—June and October. Annual totals of rainfall range between 90 cm and 110 cm in the Coastal Savanna areas and between 110 cm and 160 cm in the interior close to the margin of the forest zone. The periods December— February and July to early September are much drier than the rest of the year.
This consists of dense scrub tangle and grass, which grow to an average height of 4.5 m. It is believed that the District was once forested, but has been systematically destroyed through centuries of bad environmental practices. However, pockets of relatively dense forest can be found around fetish groves and isolated areas.These physical characteristics have combined effectively to offer opportunities in agriculture (farming and fishing) to the people.The proximity to the sea has made fishing a major activity along the coastal towns and villages notable among which are Biriwa, Saltpond, Otuam, Abandze and Kormantse.
’Further, the effective interactions among climate, soils and rivers/streams have made farming possible especially in the inland areas. Among the crops cultivated are cocoa, oil palm, pineapples, oranges, plantain, cocoyam and coconut. Also significant are the exploitation of kaolin for building, ceramic material, talc, granite and silica. These gave rise to the building of the Saltpond Ceramics Factory (now Ghana Ceramics Company) The District also has oil deposits, which are being exploited off the coast of Saltpond.