Demographic characteristics such as population size, distribution and age - sex structure are necessary inputs for effective planning for socio - economic development. These characteristics are influenced by the components of population change, i.e., fertility, mortality and migration. The dynamics of the components of population change have numerous demographic and socio -economic implications for development.
The objective of this chapter is to analyse the population size and distribution, sex ratio and the population pyramid and the components of population change of the Amenfi West Municipal.
Population Size and Distribution
As shown in Table 2.1, the total population of Amenfi West Municipal is 92,152 comprising of 47,361 males and 44,791 females. Majority (59.72%) of people in the district live in rural areas. The proportion of rural dwellers in the district is slightly higher than the average for the Western Region (57.6%) as well as the national average (49.1%).
Age - Sex Structure
The age - sex structure which is useful for population projections is presented in Table 2.1.Forty-one percent of the total population of the district is in the 0 - 14 age group. The proportion of the population 0 -14 years in the district is slightly higher than that for the Western Region (39%) and Ghana (38.3%). The elderly population (65 yearsand older) accounts for 3.1 percent of the population inthe district. Generally, there are more males than females in the district. The district has a sex ratio of 105.7 compared to 100.0 and 95.2 for Western Region and Ghana respectively (GSS, 2013).
Similarly, the sex ratio for the people aged 65years and older is more than 100, which means that there are more males than females even among the elderly population.
Age Dependency Ratio Age - dependency ratio is a measure of the dependent population made up of those below 15 years and 65 years and older, to the independent population, that is, those in the 15 – 64 age group. The ratio is used to measure the burden borne by those in the working age population. The total age dependency ratio for the district is 80.3 compared to 74.8 and 76 for Western Region and Ghana respectively. Child and old age dependency ratios are 74.7 and 5.6 respectively. The total and child dependency ratiosforthe district are higher for females than males and in the rural than the urban areas.
Population pyramid is a graphical representation of the age -sex composition of a population. Figure 2.1 shows the population pyramid of the Amenfi West Municipal. The pyramid of the district has a broad base and tapers off with increasing age. It depicts a youthful population similar to the population pyramid of the country. As shown in Figure 2.1,there are no distinctive differences in the number of males and females in the various age groups with the exception of the 55 -64 year age group which has more males than
Fertility, Mortality and Migration
This section examines the components of population change – fertility, mortality and migration. The interactions of these components determine the population size, population growth and population distribution.
Table 2.2 presents various fertility measurements (crude birth rate, general fertility rate, total fertility rate). Generally, fertility level in the district is slightly higher than the average for the Western Region. For instance, the district has a total fertility rate (TFR) of 3.7 compared to 3.6 for the Western Region and a general fertility rate (GFR) of 107.9 compared to 105.8 for the Western Region. However, the crude birth rate for the district (25.9 per 1000) is lower than the average for the Western Region (26.8 per 1000).
Children ever born and surviving
Further analysis of the fertility dynamics of the female population 12 years and older in the Amenfi West Municipal is presented in Table 2.3. There are 29,442 females 12 years and older in the district with the highest number (4,647) and the lowest number (691) recorded in the 15-19 and 55-59 age groups respectively.
The number of children ever born to all females 12 years and older in the district is 69, 243, consisting of 35,203 males and 34,040 females. The 60years and older age group registered the highest (10,693) number of children ever born, followed by the 35-39 age category (10,177). The 35-39 year age group has the highest number of surviving children (9,357) even though the group is second to the 60years and older age group in terms of children ever born in the district (Table 2.3).
Table 2.4 presents the total number of deaths and crude death rate (CDR) for all districts in the Western Region. Amenfi West Municipal has a CDR of 5.8 which is slightly lower than the CDR of 6.2 for the Western Region. The number of registered deaths in households in the district is 530.
Figure 2.2 shows that the death rate in the under-five age group is high for both males and females. This is an indication of high infant and child mortality. It shows that the death rates are lower for males than for females in almost all the age groups apart from those below age five years. The death rate for females aged 45-59 years is very high compared to males. Age groups 5-9, 65-69 and 70 years and above have almost the same death rates for both males and females. The rate increase sharply for both males and females within the age groups 60-70 years with the female rate again higher than that for the male.
Table 2.5 shows birthplace by duration of residence of migrants in the Amenfi West Municipal. The district registered
36,538 migrants. Majority (75.6%) of the migrants in the district were born outside the Western Region. Out of the migrants who were born in Ghana, but outside the Western Region, the highest number (5,093) was born in the Central Region compared to 838 (lowest number) born in the Greater Accra Region. The least number of migrants in the district is recorded for those born outside Ghana (540).
The highest proportion (28.8%) of migrants has stayed in the district for 1-4 years. The duration of residence varies by the region of birth. For instance, the highest proportion (24.7%) of the migrants who were born in the Central Region has stayed for 1-4 years while 30.7 percent of those born in the Eastern Region have stayed for 20 years or more.
Date Created : 11/17/2017 4:54:33 AM