Demographic characteristics including population size, distribution and age-sex structure are necessary inputs for effective planning for socio-economic development of a country. These characteristics are influenced by the components of population change i.e. fertility, mortality and migration. The dynamics of the components of population change have numerous demographic and socio-economic implications for development.
The objective of this chapter is to discuss the population size and distribution, sex ratio and the population pyramid of the Mpohor District. Also discussed in this chapter are the dynamics of the components of population change of the District.
Population Size and Distribution
Mpohor District has a total population of 42,923 consisting of 21,486 males and 21,437 females as shown in Table 2.1. The District is predominantly rural with 74.8 percent of the residents in the villages. Figure 2.1 shows that, the population among urban and rural localities are 74.8 percent and 25.2 percent respectively. This shows that majority of the population in the District reside in the rural communities
Age-Sex Structure, Sex Ratio and Population Pyramid
Age and sex structure of a population are vital characteristics of a population which influence many demographic issues. Understanding the age and sex structure of a population yields insights into the dynamics of the population composition and highlights on socio-economic challenges 16 ,
The age-sex structure which is useful for population projections is presented in Table 2.1. Forty percent of the total population of the District is in the 0-14 age group. The District has a sex ratio of 100.2. The sex ratio for the people in the 25-64 age group and 65+ is less than 100 which means that there are more females than males among those age groups.
Age-dependency ratio is a measure of the dependent population made up of those below 15 years and 65+ years, to the independent population, that is, those in the 15-64 years. The ratio is used to measure the burden borne by those in the working age group. According to Table 2.1, the age-dependency ratio for the District is 78.8. The ratio is higher for males (79.7) than females (77.9) and in the rural (81.4) than the urban (71.5) areas in the District.
Population pyramid is a graphical representation of the age-sex composition of a population. Figure 2.1 shows the population pyramid of the Mpohor District. The pyramid which has abroad base and tapers off with increasing age depicts a youthful population similar to that of the country. This is because in typical developing country like Ghana fertility rate tends to be relatively high and the average life expectancy low accounting for the broad base and narrower upper end of the population pyramid. As shown in Figure 2.1 there are no marked differences in the number of males and females in the various age groups with the exception of the 70+ olds with a higher female population.
Fertility, Mortality and Migration
Fertility, mortality and migration are factors that influence population growth at a particular point in time. Data on these three components are critical for planning the overall socio-economic development of the District.
Table 2.1 analyses the total population in the district by age, sex and type of locality.
The dependent population (less than 15 years and 65+ years) in the district is 25,853 or 44.25 percent of the total population, it is higher than the 42.78 for the region. The dependent population is higher in the rural locality (80.1) than in the urban locality (72.7). The age dependency ratio is higher (79.3) for the district compared with the region (74.8).
Age-Sex Structure (Population Pyramid)
Figure 2.1 shows the population pyramid which illustrates the age-sex distribution of the population in the district in 2010. The district has a youthful population consisting of a large proportion of children less than 15 years (41.4%) and cumulatively, 70.2 percent of th population are below 30 years of age (Table 2.1).
The proportions of children (0-14 years) among males and females are only slightly different, 41.2 percent among males and 41.6 percent among females. The proportions of persons aged 15 -64 years and 65+ years are also quite similar among the male and female groups, 55.9 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively, among the male group and 55.6 percent and 2.8 percent among the female group.
Fertility and Mortality and Migration
Among the components which influence population in a geographical area are mortality rate, fertility rate and migration.
Fertility refers to the actual birth performance i.e. frequency of childbearing among a population and the 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC) collected both current and lifetime fertility data from females aged 12 years and older. Table 2.4 shows reported fertility rates, general fertility and crude birth rates for the Juaboso District.
Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children a woman will have given birth to by the end of her reproductive years at the prevailing age-specific fertility rate. Table 2.2 shows that the TFR for Juaboso District is 4.2. This means that a woman in the Juaboso district would give birth to about 4 children by the time she ends her child bearing if she were to conform to current age specific rates.
There are other fertility measures such as crude birth rate (CBR) and general fertility rate (GFR). The crude birth rate (CBR) is defined as the number of births in a given year divided by the population in the middle of that year. The general fertility rate (GFR) is the number of births in a given year divided by the mid-year population of women in the age group 15-49. The CBR and GFR for the Juaboso District are 30.7 and 123.4 respectively.
Table 2.3 shows that the crude death rate in the district in 2010 is 6.1 deaths per every 1,000 of the population. This is marginally lower than the regional crude death rate of 6.2. It is also below the 8 deaths per 1,000 population estimated by the United Nations (UN) and the Population Reference Bureau (PBR) (UN, 2010; PBR, 2011). Similar to the regional level, number of deaths that occur in households in the district is less than one percent (0.61) of the total population.
Figure 2.1 illustrates deaths in the population in the district by sex. The general trend is a sharp fall between ages 0 to 5 years, followed by a gradual upward trend till age 54 years. The trend then becomes sharply upward. At birth, there are more recorded deaths in females than males and this pattern continues with gradual increasing margin up to age 54 years. From age 54 years onwards, the male deaths supersede that of females.
Table 2.4 shows female population 12 years and older by age, children ever born, children surviving and sex of child.
The majority of children born in the district survive (88.8%). The survival rate is, however, higher among female children (89.6%) compared with male children (88.0%). It is alarming to note that females in the 12 - 19 years age group are giving birth instead of being in school. However, less than half of the children born by females 12 - 14 years survive 45.5%). This is due to inexperience of the adolescent mothers in catering for babies.
Females 35 - 39 years age group record the highest number of children ever born (15.1%), followed by females 30 - 34 years age group (13.3%). This probably shows that females in these age groups are sexually active. Almost 94 percent of children born by females aged 25 – 29 years survive. However, the proportion of female children surviving (50.2%) is slightly higher than male children (49.8%).
Migration is defined as a geographical movement involving a change from a usual place of residence over a defined territory beyond a defined period (United Nations, 2012). Birthplace and migratory patterns are analysed by comparing locality of birth with locality of enumeration to provide an indication of migratory movements. However, the comparison gives only a crude measure of migration. The reason is that a person may have migrated out for about a year to work and may return to his or her birthplace before or on census night.
Table 2.5 shows that 76.4 percent of people in the Juaboso are non-migrants while 23.6 percent of the population are migrants. Among the migrants, 80.2 percent were born elsewhere in the Western Region while 19.8 percent were born elsewhere in another region of Ghana. There are however variations in the number of migrants from other regions of Ghana. The percentage of migrants from other regions of Ghana ranges from a high (25.7%) in Upper East Region to a low (2.5%) in Central Region. There are also variations of the duration of stay of internal migrants from the regions of Ghana.
Date Created : 11/20/2017 5:25:31 AM