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Hon. Paul Evans Aidoo
Hon. Alfred Ekow Gyan

The Western Region is one of the most economically active regions in the country. Both agriculture and industry feature prominently in the region’s economic activities, and influence the demographic complexities of the various districts. The economically active population in all the districts except the Shama-Ahanta East metropolitan area exceeds 70 per cent. The lower figure for Shama-Ahanta East may be due partly to the relatively high percentage of students in the district. The level of unemployment is generally low. The unemployment rate as observed is below 10 per cent in all the districts. The relatively high unemployment rate in the two industrialised urban districts of Wassa West and Shama- Ahanta East may be due to the large number of unemployed but unskilled school leavers who drift annually from the rural areas in search of non-existing jobs.

In general, male unemployment is higher than female unemployment. This is particularly so in the urbanised southern districts of Shama-Ahanta East and Wassa West, while the reverse is the case in some of the northern districts such as Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai, Sefwi-Wiawso, Aowin- Suaman and Juabeso-Bia. Agriculture is the principal occupation, engaging a large proportion of people (50% or more) in all districts, except Shama-Ahanta East (19.2%) and Wassa West (44.5%). People in Shama-Ahanta East and Wassa West are engaged mainly in production and transport work, sales and services.

More than two-thirds of the economically active population in all the districts of the region are made up of self-employed persons with no employees, except in Shama-Ahanta East (50%). The active population in Shama-Ahanta East consists mainly of employees who work for a public or private employer. Agriculture (excluding fishing) remains the biggest industrial activity in the region, employing more than 50 per cent of workers in all districts except Jomoro (46.4%), Shama-Ahanta East (14.5%) and Wassa West (45.8%). In all the districts, the private sector (both formal and informal), provides employment to more than 80 per cent of the working population

Housing Condition
The main construction material used for the walls of dwellings in most districts is mud/mud brick, with the exception of Shama-Ahanta East where 67.0 per cent of the dwellings are constructed with cement or concrete blocks. The corrugated metal sheet, the main material for roofing, is used extensively in 9 of 11 districts. Thatch/palm leaf roofs are however used extensively in Jomoro and Aowin-Suaman, where this type of material is cheap and abundant. A high proportion of people (42%), located mainly in six districts, stay in compound houses. Shama-Ahanta East, particularly Takoradi, has very huge compound houses with single rooms and shared toilet and bath facilities, which are rented out to several individuals or families, normally as single-room or sometimes up to three-room entities. Some of these houses can have as many as 40 rooms in the entire building, and there can be as many as 100 persons living in any one such building. This phenomenon contributes significantly to the very high households to house ratio in that district. There is therefore congestion in many houses, creating an inner-city slum situation.

In Shama-Ahanta East, 42.7 per cent of the population live in houses owned privately by other individuals (renting) while another third live in their own houses. Rural districts like Wassa Amenfi (71.7%), Juabeso-Bia (71.9%) Jomoro (69.5%) and Nzema East (68.7%) have higher owner-occupied houses than Shama-Ahanta East (33.6%). Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai (44.0%) and Wassa West (51.0%), which have lower proportions of owner occupied houses, probably due to the large numbers of migrants, who are likely to rent dwelling units rather than owning houses.

More than 60 per cent of all dwellings in every district have cement screeding as the main floor material, except Aowin-Suaman (48.9%) and Juabeso-Bia (43.7%). In Aowin-Suaman the commonest floor material is earth (50.1%), while 41.2 per cent of houses in Juabeso-Bia have earth floors. Shama-Ahanta East also has a few dwellings with wood (1.6%) or Terrazzo/ceramic tiles (2.4%) as the floor materials.

The main sources of lighting are kerosene lamp and electricity. Between them they provide lighting for about 99 per cent of households in the region. In the urban areas of Shama- Ahanta East (83.2%) and Wassa West (56.5%), the majority of households use electricity while in the rural districts, kerosene-fuelled lamp is the source of lighting for majority of households. About 1.0 per cent of dwellings in Juabeso-Bia use solar energy, which was introduced to the district on a pilot basis to study its feasibility in rural areas.

Source Of Water
In the region as a whole, only 32 per cent of houses have access to treated pipe-borne water with only 8.5 per cent having this available within the dwelling place. In Shama-Ahanta East about 88 per cent have access to pipe-borne water while another 9.0 per cent have access to wells or boreholes. Hence in this highly urbanized district, there is almost 100 per cent availability of, or accessibility to potable water. Although about 40 per cent of dwellings in Wassa West have access to pipe-borne water, about 25 per cent use rivers or streams as their source of water. The situation in these two highly urbanized districts is in sharp contrast to rural districts such as Aowin-Suaman where over 60 per cent of households use rivers, streams, dugouts, spring or rain water as their main source of water, with only 8.7 per cent having access to processed pipe-borne water. About 50 per cent of the dwellings in Bibiani- Anhwiaso-Bekwai, Sefwi-Wiawso, Juabeso-Bia, and Ahanta West use wells as their main source of water.

In Wassa Amenfi, Aowin-Suaman, Nzema East and Jomoro, about 60 per cent of households use natural sources or wells, whilst the remaining 10 per cent use pipeborne water located outside the dwelling places. Programmes to intensify provision of potable water, particularly in the rural areas, will need to be intensified to minimize the prevalence of water-borne diseases such as diarrhea diseases, filariasis, guinea worm, schistosomiasis, and typhoid, which are very common in the region.

Toilet Facilities
The availability of toilet facilities seems to be a major problem in the region, as about 40.0 per cent of dwellings in the region have either no toilet facility or use a public toilet. Only four districts, namely Mpohor-Wassa East (57.9%), Aowin-Suaman (62.8%), Juabeso-Bia (67.5%) and Sefwi-Wiawso (52.7%), have most of the households with a toilet facility in the dwelling unit, in the form of a pit latrine, a KVIP, a bucket or pan or a water closet (WC). Even in these districts, most of these in-house toilet facilities are ordinary pit latrines, constituting about 50.0 per cent in each case. The remaining 40.0 per cent use public toilets, which may include KVIPs or pit latrines. On the other hand, Ahanta West and Jomoro districts have 40.0 per cent or more of households with no toilet facilities at all and normally use the beaches and outlying bushes for such purposes.

The pit latrine is also used extensively in the rural areas of Mpohor-Wassa East (44.5%), Wassa Amenfi (43.5%), Aowin-Suaman (57.9%), Juabeso-Bia (48.3%) and Sefwi-Wiawso (45.0%). Because of the unhygienic nature of the pit latrine and the bucket or pan system, these must be phased out and resources and education be directed to promotion of the KVIP for such rural areas. The W.C. is used by about 20 per cent of households in Shama-Ahanta East, followed by Juabeso-Bia (8.0%). It is rather surprising that Wassa West has only 4.7 per cent of houses with WC, and Shama-Ahanta East, with the Regional Capital, Sekondi-Takoradi, has only 23.0 per cent of the households using WCs and as high as 45.4 per cent using public toilets.

The common practice of the environs of these public toilets also serving as solid waste dumps is one of the most serious health hazards posed in many of the urban and peri-urban localities. The District Assemblies therefore need to tackle this problem in the entire region and ensure that all households resort to more efficient and hygienic methods of human and solid waste disposal.

Fuel For Cooking
The main source of cooking fuel in the region is wood. The great majority of households in all the districts use wood for cooking, except Shama-Ahanta East, where charcoal is used by about 60.0 per cent of households. About 16 per cent of the households in Shama-Ahanta East also use wood. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is the third largest source of cooking fuel in Shama-Ahanta East (11.3%). Juabeso-Bia also has a significant level of LPG usage (6.3%) because of a special promotional exercise that was undertaken in the district sometime ago.

Disposal Of Solid Waste
Dumping, either at specified dumping sites or indiscriminate, is the predominant mode of rubbish disposal in the region. About 60.0 per cent of all households in all the districts use a specified public dump while an additional 29.0 per cent use an unauthorized dumping place.

Only 2.2 per cent of households have their rubbish collected by local authorities and properly disposed of. Burning and burying of rubbish account for about a tenth of household solid disposal methods. Households in Shama-Ahanta East, more than any other district, use collection agencies and public dumping sites. Solid waste management seems to be more efficiently done in this district than the other districts.

Disposal Of Liquid Waste
Liquid waste is disposed of by throwing it into gutters (24.0%), on the compound of the house (37.0%) or onto the street outside (35.0%). The same methods of disposal are used in all the districts, but with varying emphases. In Ahanta West, Mpohor-Wassa East, Wassa Amenfi, Aowin-Suaman and Juabeso-Bia, the most prevalent method of disposing of liquid waste is throwing it onto the compound.

Households in Shama-Ahanta East and Wassa West use the gutter more than the other means of disposal while in Jomoro, Nzema East, Sefwi-Wiawso, and Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai, more than 40.0 per cent of households throw their liquid waste onto the street or outside the house. Quite a few (10.0%) of households in Shama-Ahanta East use the sewerage system or septic tank to dispose of liquid waste

Community Facilities
Post Office

Except for Shama-Ahanta East, where households in 36.0 per cent of localities have access to a post office within the locality, the remaining districts have less than 1 per cent of localities having the facility within the locality. For Jomoro, inhabitants of about a quarter of its localities have to travel 6-10 kilometres to the nearest postal facility. In Nzema East, Mpohor-Wassa East and Juabeso-Bia, about 40.0 per cent of the localities are situated 31 kilometres or more from a postal facility. For Wassa Amenfi and Aowin-Suaman 20.0 per cent of localities are 31 kilometres or more from such facilities.

The situation with access to telephones in the Western Region is not any better than that of post offices. Out of the 12,985 fixed lines in the region as at 2000, 11,046 or 86.0 per cent serve the Shama-Ahanta East metropolis. The ratio of telephones per population in all the districts, including even Shama-Ahanta East, is not encouraging. Apart from Shama-Ahanta East, the other districts have ratios higher than the regional average of 1:150. Teledensity in the region is 0.3 telephones per 100 persons, which is below the national average of 0.7. This is however the third highest in the country, an indication of the extremely low teledensity in the country as a whole. Greater Accra, with the highest teledensity, has only 3.2 telephones per 100 persons.

Households in 38 per cent of the 175 localities in Shama-Ahanta East have access to telephone facilities within the locality. An additional 32.0 per cent have access within 10 kilometres. Household members in 41.7 per cent of localities in Jomoro, Ahanta West (46.0%), Wassa West (46.0%) and Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai (44.2%) have to travel 6 to 15 kilometres to the nearest telephone facility.

In Nzema East, Mpohor-Wassa East, and Juabeso-Bia, inhabitants of more than half of their localities travel more than 30 kilometres before having access to telephone. For Wassa Amenfi and Aowin-Suaman, the corresponding figure is about 25.0 per cent of the localities. Residents in over 40.0 per cent of the localities in Wassa Amenfi and Aowin-Suaman have to travel 6-20 kilometres before having access to telephone. The region is however one of the most extensively covered by the various mobile telephone operators, probably due to the high usage by the mining and other industries in the region. The region has the second highest locality coverage by Scancom Ltd., operators of Spacefon, the largest mobile telephone system in the country.

Medical Facilities
Various types of medical facilities and personnel provide primary health care in the region. These include hospitals and allopathic (orthodox) doctors and their support staff including nurses, pharmacists and public health personnel on the one hand, and traditional healing centres and traditional healers including herbalists, spiritualists, homeopaths and other nonconventional health service providers on the other hand. The official national norm is that no citizen should be more than 8 kilometres away from the nearest health facility.

Traditional healers are in almost every community in the region and in every district. Over 90.0 per cent of the population can reach them within a radius of 5 kilometers. Indeed, in all the districts, between 60 and 92 per cent of the localities have traditional healers within the locality. Hardly anybody in any district travels more than 10 kilometres to reach a traditional healer. Traditional healing facilities are therefore well within the official limits for the provision of primary health care.

On the other hand, not every community has easy access to a hospital. For instance, in Nzema East, Mpohor-Wassa East and Juabeso-Bia, 60.0 per cent of their localities are situated more than 31 kilometers from a hospital. The situation is particularly bad in the riverine areas of the Dwira traditional area of the Nzema East District, where the poor road network makes it even virtually impossible for inhabitants to travel the 31 kilometers to the nearest hospital.

There are only 106 doctors in the entire region3, 79 of them in the public sector. A large proportion (57.0%) of these are in the Shama-Ahanta East metropolis. In Juabeso-Bia, there is only 1 doctor for the entire population of about 250,000. With orthodox medical facilities already inaccessible to the rural communities, it is the herbal or traditional healers that generally ensure health care delivery. Most of the districts have doctor-patient ratios far above the regional figure (1:24,362) except Shama-Ahanta East and Nzema East. The nursepatient ratio is also not very encouraging, falling far below the national average in most of the districts.

Shama-Ahanta East has over 80.0 per cent of its localities, where households can have access to clinics within a 10-kilometre radius. Ahanta West has over 60.0 per cent of its localities having clinics within this same radius. Residents of less than 10 per cent of localities in these two districts have to travel 31 kilometres or more to the nearest clinic. This is in sharp contrast to Nzema East, where 61.3 per cent of localities are 31 kilometres or more from the nearest hospital, and 47.7 per cent of localities are 31 kilometres or more from the nearest clinic. Other districts where significant proportions of the localities have clinics located at considerable distances are Wassa West (13.9%), Wassa Amenfi (15.6%) and Aowin-Suaman (25.1%).

Access To Education
Primary Schools

There are 1,320 primary schools in the region, of which 1,240 are public and 80 private. Out of the eleven districts, 9 have less than 20 per cent of their localities having primary schools within the locality. The official policy of the Ministry of Education is that no child should travel more than 5 kilometres to the nearest basic school (primary or junior secondary). Only Shama-Ahanta East (52.0%) and Ahanta West (29.9%) have more than 20 per cent of the localities having schools within a kilometre. The districts with less than 10 per cent of 3 The Headquarters of the Ministry of Health gives a figure of 102 with 75 in the public sector as at 2002. The figure of 79 is from the Regional Office of the Ministry of Health.

Localities having primary schools within the locality are Jomoro (7.8%), Mpohor-Wassa East (7.6%) and Aowin-Suaman (9.5%). Seven of the 11 districts have 50 per cent or more of their localities having schools within 5 kilometres of the locality. The exceptions are Jomoro (30.1%), Nzema East (33%), Shama-Ahanta East (36.6%) and Ahanta West (48.1%). Except Jomoro where children in about 40 per cent of the localities have to travel 16 kilometres or more to the nearest school, in all the other districts children of over 80 per cent of localities do not have to travel more than 10 kilometres to attend the nearest school. Hence, even though most of the localities have not reached the ideal national norms, accessibility to primary schools in both the rural and urban localities of the region is fairly good, except in Jomoro, where the District Assembly will need to evolve policies to increase access and reduce distances to the nearest school.

Junior Secondary School (JSS)
There are 694 junior secondary schools (JSSs) in the region, about half the number of primary schools, and this constitutes 10.9 per cent of the total number of JSSs in the country. That there are only half as many junior secondary schools as there are primary schools, means that access would be more difficult for some of the children, and children living in localities where schools are not within reasonable distances of the localities, are likely to drop out of school after primary school.

Shama-Ahanta East has about 40 per cent of communities with JSSs within the communities. A further 40 per cent of localities have JSSs within 5 kilometres. The next is Ahanta West, with 19.5 per cent of the localities having schools within the locality. The rest of the districts have only 3-7 per cent of localities having junior secondary schools within the locality. Most districts in the region however have JSSs within 5 kilometres. Except Jomoro (29.5%), Nzema East (32.9%), and Aowin-Suaman (40.5%), all the other districts have more than 50 per cent of their localities with junior secondary schools within 5 kilometres of the locality, ranging from 51 per cent in Wassa West to 84 per cent in Shama-Ahanta East.

Children in 29.9 per cent of localities in Jomoro and 24 per cent in Nzema East, however, have to travel 16 kilometres or more to the nearest junior secondary school. Hence, as far as access to basic education is concerned, Jomoro and Nzema East, are the most disadvantaged in the region.

Senior Secondary School (SSS)
There are 42 senior secondary schools in the region and most of them are concentrated in Shama-Ahanta East, where 36 per cent of the localities in the metropolis have senior secondary schools. Ahanta West has 40 per cent and Wassa West 30 per cent of their communities having access to SSS within 10 kilometres. The situation is more serious in Jomoro, Nzema East and Mpohor-Wassa East, where more than 40 per cent of children in such communities have to travel 30 kilometres and more before attending SSS.

Some of these schools do not have boarding facilities, and even those which have, do not have adequate facilities to cater for all the qualified students. Many children, particularly those from the rural areas, are therefore unable to have access to senior secondary education in the region because of both distance and affordability. The Government’s official policy of deboardinisation will therefore need to be critically re-examined and modified to suit the requirements of different communities and districts

The basis of occupational classification is the trade, professional or type of work performed by the individual during the reference period of the census. The figures highlights the large proportion of people (more than 50.0%), in all districts who principally engaged in agricultural occupations including fishing, except Shama-Ahanta East (19.2%) and Wassa West (44.5%).

People in Shama-Ahanta East are engaged mainly in professional and technical work (9.6%), managerial (0.6%), clerical (9.2%), sales (23.4%), and service (9.1%); a reflection of the highly urbanized nature of the district. Production workers, transport operators and labourers are found mostly in Shama-Ahanta East (25.5%), Wassa West (22.0%) and Jomoro, (18.8%). For Wassa West, these may include casual labourers, technicians and heavy duty drivers working in the mines whereas in the case of Jomoro, they may be mainly commercial drivers plying between Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Both Wassa West and Shama-Ahanta East have high proportions of sales workers, being highly urbanized and relatively more industrialized. Jomoro, sharing a border with Côte d’Ivoire, also has a high percentage of the population in this field due mainly to cross-border trade, mainly in merchandise such as coconut oil, textiles and clothing, and aluminium cooking utensils.

Elubo, the fast-growing border town in the Jomoro District, has rapidly become urbanized and a bustling commercial centre, with greater human and economic activity than even the district capital Half Assini. It has grown from a small town with a population of only 1,317 in 1970 and 1,984 in 1984, to 10,428 in 2000. It has taken a lot of trade and customs and excise activities from the older border town and customs post of Jewi Wharf near Half Assini, since the construction of the bridge across the Tano River and the asphalted Mpataba to Elubo road. These have facilitated travel across the border into Côte d’Ivoire, with travellers no longer having to travel by boat across the lagoon.

Agriculture predominates in all districts, accounting for over 70 per cent of occupation in four districts, Aowin-Suaman (79.2%), Juabeso-Bia (79.0%), Wassa Amenfi (78.3%) and Sefwi-Wiawso (73.8%). Wassa West (44.5%) and Shama-Ahanta East (19.2%) have the lowest percentages in this occupation. Production and transport workers (25.5%) and sales workers (23.4%), are the two largest occupations in Shama-Ahanta East district. Administrative and managerial workers constitute the smallest occupation group, accounting for less than 1 per cent of occupations in most districts.

Female workers in agriculture, as well as sales, are more than the male counterparts in all the 11 districts. Males however constitute the majority in production, transport and labourer work, as well as in professional and technical work. Shama-Ahanta East, being an industrialized urban centre, has the highest percentage of service workers (9.1%). Females (10.6%) are more than males (7.7%) in this category. This may be due to the fact that more females work in the hotel and tourist industries and domestic work than males.

Employment Status
It is observed that apart from Shama Ahanta-East (51.0%), more than twothirds of the economically active population in all the districts is self-employed workers with no employees, with Aowin-Suaman (76.1%) having the largest group. Employees who work for a public or private employer constitute 32.3 per cent of workers in Shama-Ahanta East, which is the highest, and 9.5 per cent in Wassa Amenfi, which is the lowest. Wassa West has 20.7 per cent of such persons. Shama-Ahanta East has about 6.8 per cent of persons, the highest in the region, who operate their own businesses and hire others whom they pay.

Female self-employed without employees (75.3%) outnumber males in that category (62.0%) in the region. Indeed, except Sefwi-Wiawso where males and females constitute 70 per cent each, females outnumber male self-employed without employees in most districts, with Mpohor-Wassa East (81.6%) and Jomoro (80.7%) having the highest. In both districts these must be mainly those engaged in palm oil and coconut oil processing.

Another category of workers is persons who help in the running of an economic enterprise operated by a member of the family without payment of wages or salary. In effect, they work for family gain, and obtain some benefits, usually in the form of free food, free accommodation and sometimes, free clothing. They also have a share in the produce if they happen to do such work on a farm and are adults. Such persons are found mostly in Sefwi- Wiawso (11.3%), Juabeso-Bia (8.0%) and Bibiani (8.4%), all of them being major cocoa growing areas. On the other hand, there are only a few (2.1%) of unpaid family workers in Shama-Ahanta East; instead, the metropolis has a relatively high percentage (6.2%) of apprentices learning a trade (carpentry, masonry, dressmaking, hairdressing), the highest in the region. Among the unpaid family workers there are more females than males in all districts except Shama-Ahanta East, where males and females are almost of the same proportion (2.2% and 2.0% respectively).

The 2000 Census also collected data on persons between age 7 and 14, who were in employment though they were expected to be in school. This was to give an indication of the extent of under-age (child) employment in the country, to determine whether child labour is a major problem. In Ghana, it is unlawful to employ persons who are less than 15 years. Of all the 913,792 persons employed in the region, those between 7 and 14 numbered only 56,962 or 6.2 percent, far below the national figure of 18.7 per cent from the recent child labour survey (GSS, 2003). Juabeso-Bia has the highest number of 10,652.

Employment of persons below the legal age for employment (15 years and above) is below 10 per cent in all the districts. Employment of under-aged persons is relatively low in the urban districts such as Shama-Ahanta East (4.4%), Bibiani-Anhwiaso- Bekwai (4.2%) and Wassa West (3.8%) while rural districts such as Wassa Amenfi (7.6%), Juabeso-Bia (8.5%) and Mpohor-Wassa East (9.2%) have relatively high proportions of children between ages 7 and 14 in active employment. Notwithstanding these low figures of child labour, the problem still needs to be tackled vigorously, particularly in the rural areas where the problem may be due to relatively early drop-out from primary school or nonenrolment at school even at the initial school-going age of 6 years.

The proportion of employed persons who are between 7 and 14 years, and their employment status. Most of the working children, (45.5%) are self-employed without employees, meaning that they must be doing menial jobs such as pushing carts, selling by the road side, doing small-scale farming, or applying their basic skills to carry out odd-jobs such as shoe repair, shoe-shining, car washing etc. In Shama-Ahanta East there is a substantial

Agriculture (excluding fishing) remains the biggest industrial activity in the region employing more than 50 per cent of workers in all the districts except Jomoro (46.4%), Shama-Ahanta East (14.5%) and Wassa West (45.8%). Fishing, obviously, is an important activity in the coastal districts of Shama-Ahanta East (6.5%), Ahanta West (8.5%), Nzema East (9.6%) and Jomoro (8.3%), while mining, which is significant for Wassa West, has 12.4 per cent of the district’s workers in that sector.

Manufacturing is important in Shama-Ahanta East (19.0%), Ahanta West (12.8%), Nzema East (10.8%), Jomoro (15.5%) and Mpohor-Wassa East (9.1%). Whereas those in Jomoro and Nzema East may be due mainly to small scale processing of coconut oil, manufacturing in Mpohor-Wassa East is accounted for mainly by the location of the Benso Oil Palm Plantation and processing plant in that district, as well as the Subri Pulp and Paper industry, which is however yet to take off fully. Rubber processing and wood processing account for most manufacturing activities in Ahanta West.

Shama-Ahanta East has most of the regions industries including cigarette, cement, household utilities, paper conversion, cocoa processing and wood processing. Manufacturing ranks second after agriculture in all districts except Shama-Ahanta East (23.9%) and Wassa West (14.5%) where wholesale and retail trade is an activity drawing more than manufacturing activities. There are more females than males in wholesale and retail trade in both districts; 32.4 per cent in Shama-Ahanta East and 22.7 per cent in Wassa West, as opposed to 15.7 per cent males in Shama-Ahanta East and 7.5 per cent males in Wassa West. Indeed for Shama-Ahanta East, trading is the predominant activity.

Institutional Sector Of Employment
For all districts, the private sector (both formal and informal) provides employment to more than 70 per cent of the working population. It is only in Shama-Ahanta East that about a tenth of the working population is in the public sector. The metropolis also has a larger proportion of workers in the private formal sector than other districts. This is not surprising because the metropolis provides a home to major establishments and government offices.

The trend for each institutional sector does not change much for both sexes. The private informal sector is still dominant for both sexes across the districts, though the proportion of females in the sector is higher than it is for males in all districts. On the other hand, the proportion of males engaged in the public and private formal sectors is higher than it is for females, for all districts. Shama-Ahanta East (24.1%) and Wassa West (22.2%) have the highest percentage of male workers in the private formal sector.

The corresponding female shares are 13.7 and 14.5 per cent respectively. This is mainly because the Shama-Ahanta East has several private and joint venture manufacturing industries such as the cement, cocoa processing, household utilities, the tobacco (cigarette) industry, distilleries, private hotels and catering establishments, the shipping industry and related enterprises such as stevedoring, and wood processing industries to name a few. All the gold and manganese mining industries in Wassa West are either fully privately owned or substantially private with minor public shares.


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