Drinking Water: Almost a quarter (23.6%) of households in the region use the river, stream, pond or lake as their main source of drinking water. While 23.0 per cent use the well, 19.4 per cent rely on pipe-borne water located outside the premises and an additional 8.8 per cent use pipe borne water located within the house for their supply of drinking water. At the district level, Fanteakwa has the highest proportion (54.5%) of households that draw drinking water from the river, stream, pond and lake.
On the other hand, New Juaben has the highest percentage (39.0%) of households whose source of main drinking water is pipe-borne, located within the premises and 29.9 per cent with pipe-borne water located outside the premises. Notwithstanding the availability of the basic infrastructure for pipe-borne water in the New Juaben municipality and other urban centres, water is woefully inadequate for the use of households and is a source of constant concern for the District Assemblies.
The volume of treated water is inadequate and the distribution system is inefficient. Schemes on the drawing boards of the District Assemblies should have priority of implementation to ameliorate the situation.
The kerosene lamp is the main source of lighting in the region, used by 64.3 per cent of households. Apart from the kerosene lamp, electricity is the second major source of lighting in 34.3 per cent of households. For the districts, Afram Plains has the highest proportion (89.5%) of households using kerosene lamps as the main source of lighting compared with New Juaben which has the highest proportion (77.6%) of households using electricity for lighting.
Fuel And Space For Cooking
About 70.0 per cent (68.8%) of households use wood and 22.0 per cent use charcoal as the main fuel for cooking. The District Assemblies have, as a matter of serious concern to consider introducing L.P. Gas cylinders of different sizes to encourage the use of L.P. Gas as the main source of cooking fuel in the region. In the long run, charcoal is more expensive than L.P. Gas, but it can be bought in smaller quantities when needed.
Wood as cooking fuel is highest in the Fanteakwa District (89.5%); compared with the regional average of 68.8 per cent. The use of charcoal as a cooking fuel is highest in the New Juaben municipality (52.4%) compared with the regional average is 22.0 per cent. This can be explained by the fact that charcoal, processed from wood, is more affordable in the urban setting and that wood is more accessible in the rural areas, than in the urban. With such a high proportion of households (90.8%) using wood and charcoal as their main fuel for cooking, there is a serious threat to the environment, in particular its consequence on the depletion of forests.
Nearly two in five households (37.9%) have separate rooms exclusively set aside for cooking purposes. At the district levels, the Afram Plains District has the highest percentage (46.1) of households who have a separate room set aside exclusively for cooking.
About a third (31.7%) of households in the region use a shared bathroom; a quarter (24.1%) own a bathroom for their exclusive use; about a fifth (18.0%) share open cubicles, and slightly more than a tenth (11.8%) have open cubicles for private use in addition to 4.0 per cent using a bathing facility in another house.
Over a third (37.5%) of households in the region use pit latrine in their house, while 29.8 per cent use public toilets of all kinds (pit, pan, KVIP and W.C), In the districts, the Fanteakwa District has the highest proportion (58.9%) of households that use a pit latrine.
The New Juaben municipality has the highest use of the W.C. (17.7%) and of public toilets (39.5%). It is noteworthy that only 5.4 per cent of dwelling units in the region have no access to an accepted toilet facility, compared with the national average of 20.0 per cent. In the districts, households with no toilet facility range from 1.2 per cent in the New Juaben municipality to 28.6 per cent in the Afram Plains District.
Solid Waste Disposal
More than half (56.5%) of households in the region dispose of solid waste in public dumps, while a quarter (25.2%) dump their household waste anywhere. A tenth (10.1%) of households bury their solid waste in and around their compounds. The vast majority of households in the districts for example Birim South (72.5%), New Juaben (70.0%) and West Akim (66.3%) districts dispose of their solid waste in public dumps, Almost half (48.9%) of the households in the Afram Plains District and 40.6 per cent in the Fanteakwa District, dump solid waste elsewhere, a practice which can impact negatively on the environmental sanitation condition of residents.
Liquid Waste Disposal
Only 2.0 per cent of households dispose of their liquid waste through the sewerage system. The large proportion (48.2%) of households dispose of their liquid waste by throwing such waste onto the compound, while other households throw liquid waste onto the street, outside (31.6%) or into the gutter (17.8%).
Within the districts, households in the Afram Plains (78.0%), Fanteakwa (68.8%) and Manya Krobo (58.2%) districts have the greatest tendency to throw liquid waste onto the compounds compared with households in the New Juaben municipality (25.2%).
The practice of households throwing liquid waste onto the street is least in the Birim South (41.8%), Birim North (39.3%) and Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (39.3%), districts.