Nationality And Ethnicity
Nearly all the people (96.9%) of the region are Ghanaians (that is, Ghanaians by birth and Ghanaians by naturalisation), with 2.3 per cent being ECOWAS nationals. There are three districts, however, which have proportions of ECOWAS nationals above the regional average; they are Gomoa (8.9%), Awutu-Efutu-Senya (4%), and Agona (2.6%).
The high percentage of ECOWAS nationals in these districts could be due to the large refugee population made up mostly of Liberians and a few Sierra Leoneans at the refugee town of Buduburam and its adjoining localities. Indeed Buduburam, which used to be a very small spiritual camp called Ekwankrom before the refugees were settled there, is now the ninth largest locality in the region, with a population of 18,713.
There are more female than male Ghanaians by birth. On the other hand, there are more male than female Ghanaians by naturalisation in all districts. For the non-Ghanaians, there are generally more males than females in all districts except in a few instances where the proportion of males and females are similar.
The region is predominantly Akan, the district with the least number of Akans is Awutu- Efutu-Senya (31.9%), where Guans are the indigenous ethnic group. The other districts have at least 60 per cent of residents being Akan; indeed, six of the districts have more than 90 per cent of the population being Akans, majority of whom are Fantes, the indigenes of most districts in the region.
Nearly half (46.9%) of residents of Awutu-Efutu-Senya are Guans; in the other districts, they constitute barely 2 per cent. Among the other ethnic groups, the only one with a slightly higher percentage than the others is Ewe. The Ewes are found mostly in Awutu-Efutu-Senya (11.1%), Twifo-Hemang-Lower Denkyira (9.8%), Agona (6.0%), and Cape Coast (5.2%). The Ga-Dangme, who are about 2.3 per cent of the region’s population mainly reside in Twifo-Hemang-Lower Denkyira (5.6%), Assin (4.8%), Awutu-Efutu-Senya (3.9%), and Upper Denkyira (3.5%). The Mole Dagbon (1.6%) form a relatively small proportion in Upper Denkyira (6.5%) and Cape Coast (3.2%).
Most people (about 80%) in the region are Christians. Among this group the Pentecostals are the largest (25 percent). Protestants and other Christians also constitute about 20 per cent each. Catholics form about 14 per cent. The Islamic religious group accounts for 9.2 per cent while those professing no religion are about 7.4 per cent. Only a small proportion adheres of the population in the region to Traditional religion.
The pattern of religious affiliation for the region is similar to that of most districts with few variations. The Pentecostals constitute at least 20 per cent in each district, while Protestants form between 21 and 29 per cent in seven districts and less than 20 in the others.
Catholics are predominant in only three districts, Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (21.8%), Cape Coast (21.3%) and Upper Denkyira (20.6%). Significant proportions (21.7 to18.4%) of Catholics are also found in 5 other districts. Relatively high proportions of other Christians are in all districts with the lowest proportion in Cape Coast (10.5%).
Islam holds a significant proportion mainly in Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa (11.8%), Agona (11.7%) and Cape Coast (11.3%). About 10 per cent are found in 3 other districts. Persons with no religious affiliations constitute 11.1 and 10.7 per cent in Awutu-Efutu-Senya and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem, respectively. The practice of traditional religion is rather low in all districts except in Awutu-Efutu-Senya (2.2%).