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Hon. Nii Laryea Afotey-Agbo
Hon. Isaac Nii Djanmah Vanderpuye

Analysis of the of the region shows that Greater Accra has remained the most densely populated region in the country since 1960. The population density has increased from 167 persons in 1960 to 441 persons in 1984 to 895.5 persons per square kilometre in 2000. The intercensal growth rate of 4.4 per cent between 1984 and 2000 is much in excess of the national average of 2.7 per cent per annum and implies a doubling time of 16 years.

An additional district has been created by splitting the Ga District into Ga West (with Amasaman as capital) and Ga East (with Abokobi as capital). The sex ratio has increased slightly from 96 in 1984 to 97.7 males to 100 females in 2000. The factors responsible for the excess of females in 2000 include male out-migration and higher male mortality.

The region’s age structure is still a youthful one, characterised by a somewhat high fertility which has begun to show signs of a steep downward trend. The proportion of persons under 15 years has decreased sharply from 41.5 per cent in 1984 to 33 per cent in 2000, giving rise to a corresponding rise in the proportion of the aged (65 years and older) from 2.6 per cent in 1984 to 3.9 per cent in 2000.

The fall in fertility has affected the dependency ratio which has decreased from 79.1 in 1984 to 58.7 persons in 2000 in the dependent ages for every 100 working persons. The corresponding increase of persons aged 15-64 may be due in part to in-migrants looking for jobs in AMA and Tema, the two most industrialised districts.

Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) has the largest population (57.2%), with Dangme East being the least populated (3.2%).

The Age Structure
The age structure of the five districts is characteristic of populations experiencing rapid growth. The proportion of persons under 15 years varies from 31.6 per cent in AMA to 42.4 per cent in Dangme East, while that of the aged (65 years and older) ranges from 3 per cent in the Ga District to 8.2 per cent in Dangme East.

The sex ratio varies from 90.4 males to 100 females in Dangme East to 100.9 in the Ga District. The relatively low sex ratio for Dangme East can be attributed to several factors including male out-migration and higher male mortality. The age structures in the five districts have given rise to two patterns of dependency ratios.

AMA (55.5) and Tema (56.3), the two most developed districts have much lower dependency ratios than Ga (60.9), Dangme West (87.7) and Dangme East (102.3). The higher dependency ratios in Ga, Dangme West and Dangme East are partly a reflection of relatively higher fertility and imply a great dependency burden for the working population in these districts.

With the exception of Ga and Tema, more than half of the population is born in the locality of enumeration. In general, persons born in the Eastern Region predominate in all the districts except Tema and Dangme East, where persons born in the Volta Region form the largest proportion of persons born outside the region. Persons born outside Ghana constitute 1.3 per cent of the region’s population.

The analysis of the migratory pattern for districts indicates that the proportion of persons involved in intra-regional migration is low in AMA (3.2%) and high in Dangme East (12.9%). This pattern is almost the same for both sexes. The Eastern Region contributes the largest proportion of inter-regional migrants, followed by Volta, Central and Ashanti. Slightly more females than males have moved from the Eastern Region to the districts in Greater Accra.

International migration is low. International migrants from ECOWAS and other African countries in the districts (1%) outnumber those from outside Africa (0.3%). AMA and Ga have slightly higher proportions of international migrants than Tema, Dangme West and Dangme East.

The AMA is the most urbanized district in the region, followed by Ga, Tema, Dangme West and Dangme East in that order. As a metropolis, the entire AMA is urban, while only 18 per cent of the population in Dangme East live in urban areas.

Total fertility rates (TFRs) in the five districts vary from 5.1 in Dangme East to 2.2 in AMA. Female adolescents (15-19 years) in Dangme East and Dangme West have much higher fertility than those in AMA, Ga and Tema. This observation is supported by evidence based on life-time fertility: the mean number of children ever born to adolescents (15-19 years) in Dangme West (0.216) and Dangme East (0.202) is higher than the regional average of 0.090.

Population Size
The population of Greater Accra has increased from 491,817 in 1960 to 2,905,726 in 2000. It has the second largest population, after Ashanti, and its share of the total population of the country has steadily increased from 7.3 per cent in 1960 to 15.4 per cent in 2000.

The male population has grown from 261,547 in 1960 to 1,436,135 in 2000. The corresponding female figures are 230,270 in 1960 and 1,469,591 in 2000. During the 1960-2000 period, the female population grew much faster than the male population. This may be the result of greater migration of females into the region in response to the employment and other opportunities provided by urbanization in the area of trading and services.

Population Density
The region has remained the most densely populated region in the country since 1960. Population density (measured as the number of persons per square kilometre) has increased from 151.6 in 1960 to 895.5 in 2000. The region’s population density has doubled between 1984 (441) and 2000 and this is, in part, a reflection of migratory movements to the region. The densely populated nature of the region is brought into sharp focus when it is compared with the other regions.

Growth Rates

The region has experienced the highest growth rate in the country since 1960. The intercensal growth rate was 5.5 per cent per annum between 1960 and 1970, and 3.3 per cent between 1970 and 1984.

The 4.4 per cent annual growth rate for the period 1984-2000 is far in excess of the national average figure of 2.7 per cent and implies a doubling of the regional population in 16 years, compared with 26 years for the country.

Sex Ratio
The sex ratio (the number of males per 100 females) has decreased from 113.6 in 1960 and 105.8 in 1970 to 96.0 in 1984 and 97.7 in 2000. The excess males in 1960 is largely due to the fact that Ghana was an immigrant country with a large number of male immigrants. For instance, 12.3 per cent of the total population in 1960 was foreign-born with a sex ratio of 146.8.

The factors responsible for the excess females in 2000 include male out-migration, female in-migration and higher male mortality. The seemingly severe economic conditions of the 1980s and 1990s might have compelled relatively more male emigration.

Age Structure
A population’s age-sex structure is shaped by its past history of fertility, mortality and migration. The region’s age structure is still a youthful one characterized by a somewhat high fertility that has begun to show signs of a steep downward trend.

Total fertility rate has decreased from 3.6 in 1993 to 2.7 in 1998 and 2000. The proportion of the population aged less than 15 years was 39.4 per cent in 1960. It increased to 42 per cent in 1970, and then decreased sharply to 33 per cent in 2000.

The fertility decline in the past two decades has given rise to a corresponding rise in the proportion of the aged (65 years and older) from 2.6 per cent in 1984 to 3.9 per cent in 2000. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 show the population pyramids for 1984 and 2000. The pyramids have the typical broad base that tapers at higher ages, characteristic of high fertility populations.

However, the 2000 pyramid’s base is not as broad as that of the 1984 and this is a reflection of fertility decline which has reduced the proportion of children in the total population. The shape of the two pyramids has also changed significantly between 1984 and 2000. Whereas the 1984 pyramid reflect a relatively young population with high fertility rate, the 2000 pyramid is beginning to assume a shape consistent with declining fertility and a gradually aging population.

Dependency Ratio

In spite of its limitations, it gives a rough indication of the dependency burden of a population. The dependency ratio has decreased from 79.1 in 1984 to 58.7 in 2000, implying that there are now 20 fewer dependents for every 100 working persons. This reduction is largely due to a steep decline in fertility which has reduced the proportion of non-working persons aged less than 15 years. The dependency ratio of 87.1 for the country is 1.5 times that of the region.

Birthplace
Birthplace statistics provide some information on migratory movements of the population. The proportion of Ghanaians born in the locality of enumeration has decreased from 55.3 per cent in 1984 to 52.2 in 2000. Intra-regional migration has also decreased from 7.9 per cent in 1984 to 6.5 in 2000, whereas inter-regional migration has increased from 36.1 per cent in 1984 to 40.1 in 2000.

Examination of the 2000 birthplace data shows that of the 1,309,597 Ghanaian males enumerated in the region, 52.2 per cent were born in the locality of enumeration and 6.3 per cent in another locality in the region, making a total of 58.5 percent. Among the 1,370,394 Ghanaian female population, 52.2 per cent were born in the locality of enumeration, while 6.7 per cent were born in another locality in the region. A slightly higher proportion of males than females is involved in intra-regional migration, whereas almost the same proportion of males (40.3%) and females (39.9%) is involved in inter-regional migration.

The Eastern Region contributes the largest proportion of inter-regional migrants (11% of males and 12% of females) in view of the region’s proximity to and cultural links with, the Greater Accra Region. The same proportion (1.2%) of each sex in the region was born outside the country.
As already indicated, the region comprises five administrative districts, Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), Tema Municipal Area, Ga, Dangme West and Dangme East.

Some analysis has also been done for the six sub-metropolitan area in AMA (Ablekuma, Ashiedu Keteke, Osu Clottey, Kpeshie, Ayawaso and Okaikoi) where the data are available.)

Population Size
The AMA is the district with the largest population, followed by Ga, Tema, Dangme West and Dangme East. The AMA’s share of the region’s population is more than half (57.1%) while Dangme West and Dangme East contribute less than a tenth (about 3% each) between them. The heavily populated nature of the region is underscored by the fact that three of the five districts have populations exceeding 500,000. Ablekuma, a sub-metro of AMA even has a population exceeding that of Tema.

Age-Dependency Ratios
In the region, the dependency ratio has decreased from 79.1 in 1984 to 58.7 in 2000. The dependency ratio ranges between 55.5 persons in AMA to 102.3 in Dangme East.

AMA and Tema, which are the most developed districts, have much lower dependency ratios than Ga, Dangme West and Dangme East. The high dependency ratios in Ga, Dangme West and Dangme East are partly a reflection of relatively higher fertility and also imply a higher dependency burden for the working population in these districts. In the six sub-metropolitan areas, there are roughly two working persons catering for one non-working person.

Birthplace And Migratory Pattern Birthplace
More than half (52%) of Ghanaians by birth in the region were born in the locality of enumeration compared to a slightly higher percentage of 55.3 in 1984. It is observed that except Ga and Tema, more than half of the population were born in the locality of enumeration; in Dangme East, it is about three quarters. The proportion of persons born in another locality in the region, ranges from 3.2 per cent in AMA to 12.9 per cent in Dangme East.

On the other hand, the proportion of persons enumerated in the region but born elsewhere in Ghana varies from 11.9 per cent in Dangme East to 49.5 per cent in Tema. In general, persons born in the Eastern Region predominate in all the districts, except Tema and Dangme East, where persons born in the Volta Region form the largest proportion of persons born outside the region. Persons born outside Ghana constitute 1.3 per cent of the population of the region.

The proximity of the Eastern Region to AMA, Ga and Dangme West as well as availability of job openings particularly in AMA may partly account for the large proportion of persons from the Eastern Region. Similarly the Volta Region borders Dangme East on the east and it is likely that distance, language and affinity will predispose persons in the Volta Region to move to Dangme East.

The analysis shows that the above pattern holds true for both males and females. In general, the male proportions are slightly higher for persons born in the locality of enumeration, while the reverse is the case for persons born in another locality in the region.

Migratory Pattern
The proportion of persons involved in intra-regional migration is low in AMA (3.2%) and high in Dangme East (12.9%). The above pattern is almost the same for each sex. It is observed that the Eastern Region contributes the largest proportion of interregional migrants followed by Volta, Central and Ashanti regions in that order. Slightly more females than males have moved from the Eastern region to the districts. At the district level, Ga has the largest proportion (14%) of inter-regional migrants from the Eastern Region, compared to 2.4 per cent for Dangme East.

International migration is relatively low. International migrants from the ECOWAS and other African countries predominate in the districts (1.0%) compared to 0.3 per cent from outside Africa. AMA and Ga have slightly larger proportions of international migrants than Tema, Dangme West and Dangme East.

Population Distribution (Urban-Rural)
AMA is the most urbanized district in the region, followed by Ga and Tema while Dangme West and Dangme East are the least urbanized. The proportion of persons living in urban areas ranges from 18 per cent in Dangme East to 88 per cent in the Ga District, outside of the AMA which is wholly urban. Dangme West and Dangme East are largely rural districts, where more than three out of every four persons live in a rural area. This pattern is true for both males and females.

Fertility
This is unexpected for Ga, Dangme West and Dangme East, where age at marriage is relatively lower than in AMA and Tema. Age misstatement may be more prevalent in these three districts. Female adolescents (15-19 years) in Dangme East and Dangme West have much higher fertility than those in AMA, Ga and Tema.

The TFR of 2.5 for the region compares favourably with 2.7 for the region in 1998. Comparison of TFRs for the districts shows Dangme East with the highest fertility (5.1) and AMA with the lowest fertility (2.2). The fertility level indicated by TFR for Dangme East is 2.4 times that of AMA.

Lifetime Fertility
The higher the age of women the higher the mean number of children ever born increases; the largest increase being between age groups 25-29 years and 30-34 years, for all districts. Dangme East, once again, recorded the highest fertility; the mean number of children ever born to women is 76 per cent higher than that of AMA.

Child Survival
Comparison of mean number of children ever born and mean number of children living gives some indication of mortality levels in the districts. There is very little variation in survivorship by district, with the lowest of 81.0 in Dangme East and the highest of 85.1 in Tema.
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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