Kpando Municipal is located in the Volta Region of Ghana and it is one of the oldest in the country. The Municipality lies within latitudes 6° 20’N and 7005’N, and Longitude 00 17’E. It shares boundaries with Jasikan District in the North, Hohoe District to the East, and the newly created South Dayi District in the South. The Volta Lake which stretches over 80km of the costal line, demarcates the Western boundary.
The Municipal covers a total land area of 820 square kilometres representing 45% of the Volta Region with almost 40% of the land being submerged by the Volta Lake. Kpando, the municipal capital, is 90 km from Ho, the Regional capital The location of the Municipality places it at a very strategic position with potential for fast economic development
The most conspicuous physical features of the Municipal are the Akwapim- Togo-Atakora ranges which is at the eastern corridor between Ho and Kpando Municipal. The Municipality is dotted with scattered hills and ranges of varied length and height resulting in an undulating feature of the municipality.
The major hills are Anfoega, Awate, Botoku and Wusuta. The highest point in the district is 1,250 ft and is located alone the Volta Lake around Awate and Botoku. The hilly nature of the municipality generally affects the condition of the road and therefore results in increase in the cost of maintenance. The fact that most of the roads are not tarred increase the degree of erosion that seriously affect the condition of these roads and residential buildings during raining seasons.
This implies that during this time the cost of transportation for the people along the affected roads increases putting untold hardship to the already impoverished communities. Not only does the topography affect the condition of the road but also the agriculture productivity of the area.
Again the hilly nature of most places throughout the Municipality denied the people access to cultivable land and also impedes large-scale mechanised farming. The end result is small land holding which result to subsistence farming with low income.
The Volta Lake and the River Dayi are the major water bodies that drain the Municipal. There are however, other numerous streams and rivulets that can be found throughout the Municipal but these are perennial The Volta Lake runs virtually along the whole of the western boundary while the Dayi River is to the east and its basin provides a prime farming land for the cultivation of a variety of food crop and vegetables.
The presence of these water bodies are great potentials for irrigation development which can support all year round farming and thus creating employment opportunities for the youth. The lake is also a big potential for the design of a water supply scheme to many communities faced with access to good water.
The tourism and the fishing industries are the other areas where the lake can be harnessed to the benefit of the entire population. When this are properly harnessed it could in the long term contribute to the increase in household income.
The Municipality falls within the tropical zone, and it is generally Influenced by the South west monsoons wind from the South Atlantic Ocean and the dry harmattan winds from the Sahara. The Municipality is therefore characterised by two rainy seasons. The major one occurs from mid-April to early July and the minor from September to November.
The beginning and the end of the rainy seasons are not very distinct and there is sometime rainfall even during the dry period. The average annual rainfall ranges from 900mm to 1,300mm with considerable variations with the time of onset, duration and intensity over the years. The double maxima rainfall pattern experienced put the Municipality at comparative advantage in food production and food security.
It is an opportunity for the farmers to increase their income annually as a result of the two cropping seasons unlike other areas in the country with single season rainfall
The vegetation of the Municipal is of Guinea Savannah Woodland, Deciduous and Thick Forest types.It is certain that the Municipal was densely forested in former times. But huge forest areas have been destroyed and converted to other land uses during the past decades. Unfortunately, nobody know exactly about the extend of the forest areas In the past, and what still remain first look like. The vegetation of the Municipalis characterised by a mix of guinea savannah woodland and semi-deciduous forest.
The savannah woodlands consist of grass with scattered trees like acacia, bamboo and baobabs. These dots the River Dayi Basin. The semi-deciduous forests are found on the slopes of the Akwapim Togo-Attakora ranges. With many tree species which are also found in high forest zone, such as Antiaris Toxicaria, (Odum) Oil palm.
Much of the forest has however been lost to the menace inappropriate farming practices and of excessive lumbering and bush fires. Forest resources including the wildlife are being over exploited for charcoal and fuel wood production especially in and around Gbefi, Kudzra and Kpando areas threatening the extinction of some wildlife and medicinal tree species.
Additionally, there is a lot of indirect damage caused by forest fines such as lose of organic material, loss of soil fertility, increase of erosion hazard and change for the worse of the water regime. All this damage may have detrimental effects on other spheres of life such as agriculture pasture and water supply.
To conserve the environment and protect the vegetative cover, the forestry division under the FORUM project developed some forest reserves in the Municipal. These are the Kpando Ranges (Dayi and West Block), Kpando Plantation Forest Reserve, Awate Forest Reserve Tsrukpe, Agate and Reserves There are other smaller reserves at Wusuta. Aveme Sabadu Vakpo Botoku and Tsoxor. These Reserves covers about 4% of the total area of the Municipal. The vegetation of the district is conducive for animal husbandry, cultivation of root cereal crops and horticulture.
The Municipal is generally underlined with Buem Volcanics rocks stretching through to Jasikan and Kadjebi District. The implication of this type of rock is that it supports surface supplies of underground water and the surface supplies are fairly good while prospects for boreholes ranges from fair to good.
The major soil types developed from this parent rock in the district are the Savannah Ochrosols (reddish lightly acid; more natient) " Oxysp; heavily drained; yellowish, less nutrient and ground water laterites. This is characterised by sandy loam type of soil with local adaptation.
Along the lake and the River Dayi, the alluvial silt loams predominate. The terrain is mostly steep and access is difficult. Inventories made to classify soils according to their general and chemical characteristics indicate that the soils in the Municipality are of low fertility and low moisture holding capacity which has serious implication for agricultural crop development.
There are outcrops of some special clay located at Anfoega Agatanyigbe, Kpando, Gbefi and Kudzra which can support pottery and bricks and tiles production.