The topography of the district is typical of the Northern Region, generally flat with few undulating surfaces. Nowhere does the land rise up to 200 metres. The district is underlaid by the Voltarian sedimentary formation with low potential for mineral formations and poor water retention.
The area receives annual precipitation averaging 1,050mm, considered enough for single farming season. Temperatures are usually high, averaging 300C.
The main drainage system in the district is made up of the Volta and some of its major tributaries including the White Volta, the Daker and Oti Rivers. There is a good flow of water which is collected and stored in the Volta Lake. Potential exists for irrigation and small dam sites.
The natural vegetation in the district is Guinea Savannah Woodland, which consists of trees that are drought resistant.
Most of these trees are of economic value. Notable amongst them are the shea and dawadawa trees. Compared to the rest of the Northern Region, the tree cover is dense although intense harvesting for fuel wood is fast reducing the natural flora.
At the extreme south-east, the vegetation is dense and semi-deciduous trees such as oil palm trees, raffia palms and others can be found. There are three major groups of soils in the district: Alluvial Soils, Ground water Laterites and Savannah Ochrosols.
The district has a number of large water bodies that flow throughout the district. These include the Volta Lake and the Dakar River both of which run across the district. A number of streams, dams, valleys, hills and mountain are also found at various locations in the district, as part of the natural environment.
The confluence of the Volta and some of its major tributes including the White Volta and the Dakar River are found in the district. There is good flow of water from these rivers, which are collected and stored in the Volta Lake. This provides the potentials for water transport, irrigation development and fishing activities.