The East Gonja District lies in the Tropical Continental climatic zone with the mid-day sun always overhead. As result, temperatures are fairly high ranging between 29oC and 40oC. Maximum temperature is usually recorded in April, towards the end of the dry season. Minimum temperatures are also recorded around December-January, during the Harmattan period.
Just like any part of West Africa, the district comes under the influence of the wet South-West Monsoon and the dry North-East Trades winds which are associated with the rainy season and the dry harmattan conditions respectively.
The rainfall pattern in East Gonja is characterized by irregularity and variability in terms of timing of onset, duration and total amount of rainfall, which has been the key limiting factor affecting crop production in the district.
However, the district has one main rainy season which is sufficient to support and sustain plant life. The total annual rainfall ranges between 1050mm to 1500mm.
The natural vegetation in the district is the Guinea Savannah Woodland, which has evolved from climatic conditions and modified substantially by human activities. There are few grooves, which have been preserved over the years.
The tree cover is relatively dense, compared to the rest of the Northern Region. However, intensive harvesting of the trees for fuel wood and charcoal burning, and also activities of the Fulani herdsmen is fast reducing the tree cover, particularly in areas close to the Tamale and the Abrumase areas close to the Pru district in the Brong Ahafo region.
The tree cover consists of semi-deciduous trees such as oil palm trees; raffia palm; Acacia; Shea-nut trees; Dawadawa trees among others. In addition, high grasses that characterized savannah areas extensively spread throughout the district. A large number of both plant and animal species inhabit the natural environment.
A number of Grooves are also found all over the district, which have been preserved over the years and which also constitute part of the natural environment.
At the extreme southeast, the vegetation is dense and some semi-deciduous trees such as oil palm trees, raffia palm and others can be found there.