Physical and Natural Environment
The Atwima Mponua District is located in the south-western part of the Ashanti Region covering an area of approximately 894.15 square kilometers. It lies between longitude 2o00’W and 2*32’W and latitude 6o32’N and 6o75’N. The District shares boundary with eight Districts, principally in the South with the Amansie West District, Ahafo Ano South to the north, Atwima Nwabiagya in the East and Bibiani – Anwhiaso – Bekwai District of the Western Region. Nyinahin, the capital is more in the west of the west of the District, about 45km from Kumasi.
Figure 1 below shows the District and its capital in a regional and national context. Figure 2 also show the District map with the towns in the district.Implication for Development:
The location of the District offers it the opportunity to interact with 3 political regions of the country. Proximity to Kumasi, the regional capital has both advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the latter, the youth turn to drift to Kumasi in search of jobs as is shown by the marked deficit of males in the age classes of 20 to 35 years of the District population pyramid even though males out number females in the District.
The District has undulating topography dissected by plains and slopes with average height of 76 meters above sea level. The high grounds are the portion of the Atiwa- Atakpame mountain range that lies to northwest of the District. The district is drained by the Offin and Tano Rivers. These rivers flow continually throughout the year and can therefore be used for both domestic and agriculture purposes. Implications for Development:
Irrigation agriculture is an untapped potential in the District especially around Adiemra where are there large expanse of flat lands around River Offin and the Tano around Tano Dumasi.
Like most areas that lie in the wet semi-equatorial forest zone in Ghana, the District is marked by double maxima rainfall seasons. The major rainfall period begins from March to July peaking in May. The average annual rainfall for the major season is about 170 centimeters – 185 centimeters per year. The minor rainfall period begins in August tapering off in November with an average minor annual rainfall of 100centimeters- 125 centimeters per year. December to February is dry, hot and dusty. Mean annual temperatures of 27oC in August and 31* in March are recorded in the district. The climate in the District is ideal for the cultivation of cash and food crops as cocoa, cola, oil palm, maize, cocoyam, plantain, cassava, rice and all kind of vegetables.Development Implications:
Even though the rainfall is adequate for agriculture, its erratic and unpredictable nature and concentration have adverse implications for rain fed agriculture. Vegetation and Forest Resources
The vegetation is basically of the semi – deciduous type. The flora and fauna is diverse and composed of different species of both economic and ornamental tree species with varying heights and game and wildlife. Forest occurs along the major rivers and streams. There are three (3) forest reserves in the district stocked by such valuable timber species as wawa, sapele, esa, asafena etc. The reserves include the Asanayo, Gyemara, and Tano - Offin Forest Reserves. The vegetation of the District has been extensively disturbed by human activities depriving the District of valuable tree species and other forest products. There are however on-going programs to replant some of the degraded lands as shown in the table below. Development Implications:
The diverse flora and fauna is a very vast economic potential for timber based value adding industrialization and ornamental purposes. However the dense forest makes land clearing for indigenous agriculture difficult and expensive.
The soils in the District are generally suitable for agriculture. They are however classified into two (2) using their major characteristics as moderately suitable and marginally suitable soilsModerately Suitable Soils Types
These soil types occur extensively in the District and are composed of:
Maginally Suitble Soils
- Kumasi-Asuansi Compound Association – these soils are generally red, well drained quartz gravelly and ironstone connections. They range from sandy to gritty and clayey loams suitable for the cultivation of cassava, cocoyam, plantain and cocoa.
- Bekwai-Akumadan/Oda Compound Association– these range from yellowish-red to reddish-yellow, deep well drained clayey loams occurring in undulating terrains where susceptibility to erosion is moderate to severe in the district. The moisture holding of these soils is fairly high though the surface layers experience moderate seasonal drought. Cash crop such as cocoa, coffee, citrus, oil palm, cola and avocado do well on this soil type. While maize, cassava and plantain equally thrive well, rice and sugarcane have been recommended for the poorly drained valley bottoms.
- Adukrom-Asikuma Association – this comprises shallow ironstone, silt -loam or silt- clay loam, yellowish-red quartz and ironstone concretionary. They are well drained and occur on hilly to well dissected topography very good for the cultivation of coffee, oil palm and other tree crops.
- Ahoanam-Kakum-Kyekyewere Association – they are made up of very shallow reddish-brown well drained loams containing abundant loose gravels and pebbles. They are found around Tano-Dumasi, Bayerbon and Gyereso in the District. These soils are fertile and present extensive possibilities for varied crop production. Crops they can effectively support are yam, maize cassava, beans, cocoyam and plantain.
- Susan Association- They are moderately deep, reddish-brown and well drained. Most of it occurs over undulating lands where erosion ranges from moderate to severe. They are suitable for the cultivation of cassava, cocoa, maize, plantain and cocoyam.
There are four (4) main types of soils that are marginally suitable for agriculture. These soils are:
- Bekwai-Oda Association - in the District they are found around Beposo and Nyinahin occurring on gently undulating slopes (3 to 8 degree slopes) susceptible to from slight to moderate erosion when under cultivation. The problem can be overcome with soil management practices. Good for cocoa, coffee, cassava, cocoyam and plantain.
- Bekwai–Zongo/Oda Compound Association – the type is found in gently undulating topography with susceptibility to relatively slight erosion. In addition to possessing the characteristics of the Kumasi-Asuasi Compound Association, seepage is massive in pan soils.In the District this soil type are found around Anyinamso, Twenedaso and Nyame Bekyere. Cocoa, plantain, maize and cocoyam thrive well on it.
- Mim–Oda Compound Association – they are mostly shallow, dark- brown and imperfectly drained soils found on mid - slopes and deep grey poorly drained silt -clay and silt-loams. They occur around Beposo, Akonkye, Abompe and Kokobuso in the District.
- Kobeda-Eshien Compound Association - soils in this association are rocky, shallow dark – brown and imperfectly drained found on mid-slopes. They may also be deep gray poorly drained silt-clays and clayey-loam. These soils can be found around Yaw Barimakrom. They are suitable for cultivation of rice sugar cane and vegetables.
The soils in the District are deep and can support a wide range of Crops; they are subject to erosion and leeching when exposed to the direct vagaries of the weather.Geology and Mineral Endowment
The District is underlain by the Birimain and Tarkwaian rocks that are rich in minerals such as gold and bauxite. Gold bearing rocks are found at Ntroboso, Bontomuruso, Anwiafutu, Kyekyewere and Aniamoa. Bauxite is found in Nyinahin. Gold prospecting is going on in a number of places in the District. The Nyinahin bauxite however remains un-exploited.Development Implications:
It can be expected that exploitation of the minerals in the District will greatly energize the development of the District through job creation, improved household incomes and the much needed revenue in the form of royalties to the District Assembly.
For tables refer to pdf file attached