The Southeastern coastal plain of Ghana, which encompasses the Dangme West District, is one of the hottest and driest parts of the country. Temperatures are however subjected to occasional and minimal moderating influences along the coast and altitudinal influences affected by the Akwapim range in the northwest.
Temperatures are appreciably high for most parts of the year with the highest during the main dry season (November - March) and lowest during the short dry season (July - August). They average a few degrees lower on the coast and close to the Akwapim range than they do over most of the plains. The absolute maximum temperature is 40° C.
The most complete absence of cloud cover for most parts of the year gives way to very high rates of evaporation which leaves most parts of the district dry and with parched soils. The combined effects of high temperatures and high insulation levels, on the other hand, are of invaluable asset to the salt-making industry, as they account for the high and rapid rates of salinization and crystallization crucial for the winning of salt. They also provide enormous potentials for solar power development.
Rainfall is generally very low with most of the rains, very erratic in nature and coming mostly between September and November. Mean annual rainfall increases from 762.5 millilitres on the coast to 1220 millilitres to the North and Northeast close to the foothills of Akwapim Rang and on the summit.
The unreliability and dependence of farmers on the rainy seasons makes farming a vulnerable occupation. Periodic main crop failures are common phenomena even in the better- watered northern parts. It is obvious therefore that the provision of irrigation facilities would be of great value in the district. This should be accompanied by soil salinit control measures.
The predominant vegetation type found in the district is of the short grass savannah interspersed with shrubs and short trees, a characteristic of the Sub- Sahelin type. A large portion of vegetation remains dry for most parts of the year particularly towards the south except for the short rainy season.
The ravaging effects of seasonal bushfires that sweep across most parts of the district especially during the dry season further depreciate the quality of the vegetation.
Along some stream courses, however, higher vegetation type ranging from thickets to light forest are common. Some light forest with tall trees is also found along the foothills of the Akwapim Range especially around Dodowa, Ayikuma and Agomeda areas. There is a Forest and Game and Wildlife Reserve around the Shai hills.
Large strands of Borassus Palm are found around the eastern portions of Dodowa and Ayikuma. Isolated stands of baobab trees are common all over the plain. In the Volta flood plain areas, tall swampy grass and tall grass savannah with isolated patches of thicket and trees represent the main vegetation type.