Community Initiative / Private Sector Drive
In planning and programming, alternative development avenues are explored to offer the best possible line of action that will provide an expected future state. In the bid to unearth the best development path for the Accra Metropolitan Assembly, three main scenarios or prospects were considered:
- Community Initiative /Private Sector Drive;
- External/Public Sector Support
- Public - Private Partnership (PPP)
The main underlying assumptions are: -
External / Public Sector Support
- Demand Driven and local response to felt need;
- Optimum use of local human and material resources;Large sponsorship by communities and private sector, including NGOs;
- Community ownership of facilities; and community management and sustenance of development projects and programmes.
The main assumptions underlying this path are:
- Project sponsorship by Metropolitan Assembly, Bilateral and Multilateral Agencies;
- Little Participation by beneficiaries and private sector;
- Public sector management of projects and programmes; and
- Existence of enabling environment.
Finally the assumptions underlying this development path are;-
- Communities and NGOs (Private Sector) and the Metropolitan Assembly and The Government (Public Sector) collaborating as development partners.
- Capacity and capabilities determining role to be played by each stakeholder/party.
- Mutual co-existence.
It is worth mentioning that the development paths discussed are not altogether applicable to particular areas. Their usages depend on the particular programmes and circumstances governing them. Development Strategies
Two (2) main development strategic options were considered to aid the plan formulation. They are; -
Growth Pole Approach (GPA
- Growth Pole Approach; and
- Basic Needs Approach.
The Growth Pole Strategy identifies growth points at locations that are central to relatively even demarcated areas. Accessibility of higher order services to peripheral settlements is the main thrust.
It assumes that the growth points will have a trickle down effect on the periphery. This approach is characterised by the following;
Basic Needs Approach (BNA)
- A threshold population;
- Accessibility to higher order services;
- Distribution of facilities/programmes according to settlement (in the instant case, suburban groupings);
- Facilitation of spatial interaction; and
- Possible attainment of overall development objectives
Essentially this approach is mostly centred on Poverty alleviation. It is geared towards assisting the disadvantaged groups in society by meeting the basic social and economic needs of the poor. The tenets of this approach are ;-
- Poverty alleviation
- Satisfaction of felt needs
- Promotion of local participation and sustainable development; and
- Promotion of socio-economic service delivery.
Plan (PL) 1: Growth Pole Development Plan through community Initiative
This planning technique creates central places where higher order facilities are provided collectively by surrounding settlements with the view to creating a convenient threshold population and mobilizing adequate resources to be able to provide and maintain facilities or services that any single community cannot afford. The main components of this plan include:
- Formulation and animating organized groups for participation in development planning;
- Strengthening traditional links and local capacity building;
- Generation and utilization of local resources including man-power;
- Exploitation of traditional linkages; and
- Promotion of spatial interaction among settlement groups.
Plan (PL) 2: Basic Needs Approach through Private Sector Initiative
This plan focuses on the provision of food, shelter, clothing, health, education and employment through the initiative of the private sector and beneficiary communities. The components of this technique include:
- Creation of enabling environment to attract private sector into development efforts;
- Generation of employment by private sector;
- Formulation and orientation of organised groups for participation in development planning; and
- Maximum use of local expertise and material resources in the provision of basic socio-economic amenities.
Plan (PL) 3: Growth Pole through External Support
This plan creates central places or service centres through public sector drive and external support. It entails conscious efforts by Government and donor Agencies to uplift functional status of settlements for the enjoyment of higher order services by peripheral communities.
Plan (PL) 4: Basic Needs Approach though External support
In this plan, poverty alleviation is sought through external and public sector support. Beneficiary communities contribute little or nothing to the provision of basic socio-economic amenities. This plan is widely used in welfare societies.
Plan (PL) 5: Growth Pole Approach through Public – Private Infusion
In this plan, emphasis is laid on interaction between community/Private Sector and Public/External efforts in the provision of needed higher order services at central locations to serve a cluster of settlements.
Plan (PL) 6: Basic Needs Approach through Public-Private Infusion
This plan aims at mobilizing efforts within and without a geographic entity to provide basic social advancement among the disadvantaged and poor in society. The plan encourages local initiatives and attracts external magnanimity
Sustainable Integrated Development Plan
After evaluating the above six plans at formal and informal levels and considering local resource base, potentials, problems, constraints, and government development priorities, the Planning Team of AMA came out with a sustainable plan (2002-2010) which contains the following components, among others:
- Financial mobilization and expenditure management programmes;
- Restructuring and Strengthening of Assembly’s Technical and Administrative capacity.
- Ensuring sound physical development and environmental sanitation management in the Metropolis.
- Provision and improvement of basic socio-economic infrastructure and services;
- Creation of enabling environment to attract investors;
- Promotion of small scale enterprises, particularly agro-based ones;
- Improvement of road networks;
- Upgrading of health facilities;
- Intensification of civic education (for example, taxation, AIDS)
Based on the selection of the Sustainable Integrated Development option, the Development Focus of the AMA was formulated as:‘ENSURE THE PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE, FACILITATE INSTITUTIONAL RENEWAL AND ATTITUDINAL CHANGE AND PROMOTE SOCIAL EQUITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES’
Following the formulation of Metropolis goals and identification of development themes, specific actions need to be taken to ensure that the goals of the Metro are actually achieved. These development approaches are discussed under various development areas
Environmentally Sound and Self-sustainable Development
Introduction of efficient and viable land management techniques in agriculture, forestry and other land uses to avoid environmental degradation:
- Ensure safe disposal of all solid and liquid waste for all communities and commercial areas and the improvement of other unsanitary conditions of the Metropolis;
- Introduction of efficient land management techniques to avoid environmental degradation
Institutional Capacity Building
- Promote community participation as an integral part of the overall decision-making process on development.
- Implementation and strengthening of unit committees to provide effective linkages with the Metropolitan Assembly.
- Effective coordination of the activities of the private sector, NGO’s, governmental agencies, communities, and individuals to enable them contribute immensely to the development of the of the Metropolis.
Basic Needs Satisfaction and Human Resource Development
- Effective mobilization and judicious use of human and financial resources;
Reduce the incidence of poverty by improving access to employment through maximizing opportunities for the creation of employment avenues;
Rehabilitating educational facilities, providing logistics, incentives, and increase enrolment.
(i) Employment generation
- Maximize opportunities for the creation of productive employment to reduce the current unemployment and underemployment levels to about 0.5 per cent by the year 2010.
- Increase the current school participation rate of basic education especially that of the girl-child, to 100 per cent by the year 2010;
The Perspective Plan (2002 -2010)
- Eliminate the Metropolis’s school dropout rate for basic and secondary school by 2010;
The perspective plan is a bundle of policies and programmes aimed at solving structural problems in the Metropolitan economy in relation to social economic, spatial, administrative and environmental issues.
The document, Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy 2002-2010 serves as the framework for the Governments development approach. However, it is ideal to present the long-term perspective of the Accra Metropolitan Area so as to reveal the peculiar dynamics of the Metropolitan economy. The Goals of the Perspective Plan
The intended objectives are summed up below:
- Ensure equity in the distribution of basic facilities;
- To reduce poverty;
- Improve environmental sanitation
- To increase employment opportunities;
- Improve upon standard on living of the people; and
- Encourage the participation of the private sector and NGO’s in the development of the Metropolis.
The basic principle underlying this programme is to provide sound and supportive infrastructure base to enhance the development of other sectors, of the Metropolis’s economy especially production and service sectors.
The programme is also meant to effectively develop the human resource potential of the Metropolis and the improvement of both surface and message communication facilities to enhance accessibility to and from productive and market centres. This in a way would make the Metropolis stand in a better position to attract investors.
The programme pays attention to maintenance and effective management of existing services and facilities and the provision of new ones in deprived areas of the Metropolis. The programme components under the various thematic areas include:Human Resources and Basic Services
Goal:- To have 80% improvement in infrastructure development of the Metropolis to enhance socio-economic development.
Programme for the vulnerable and excluded
- To facilitate the provision of six sports and recreational facilities in the sub-metropolitan areas by the year 2010.
- To facilitate the improvement of utility services in the metropolis.
- To ensure sound environmental sanitation in deprived residential and commercial areas.
- To ensure sustainable management of open spaces.
- Improve upon the existing transportation and drainage system.
- To reduce incidence of flooding in AMA.
- Redevelopment of Rawlings Park.
- To increase access to and participation in education to 100 per cent by the year 2010;
- To reduce child mortality and morbidity.
- To prevent and manage the incidence of HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases in the metropolis.
- To enhance the performance of the fire service to ensure public safety from fire and other emergencies in the metropolis.
- To strengthen institutional and infrastructural capacity and general health delivery in AMA health department.
- To improve liquid waste management in the Metropolis
Goal: To improve on the efficiency in the delivery of social services for the vulnerable and the excluded in society.Objective: -
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTMetro Economy
- To build the capacity of the Metro Department of Social Welfare.
- To help integrate the People With Disabilities (PWDs) into the mainstream of society.
- Rehabilitation and upgrading of slum areas.
Goal – To reduce the spate of urban poverty in the Metropolis.Objectives
Production And Gainful Employment
- Enhance economic activities in the Accra Metropolis.
- To increase internally generated revenue.
- To develop historical buildings for conservation/restoration
Goal – To provide an enabling environment for production and income generating activities for small-scale entrepreneurs in the Metropolis.Objectives:
INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDINGGood Governance
- To facilitate production and income-generating activities for small- scale entrepreneurs in the metropolis.
- To build capacity for youth and/women employment in small-scale enterprise.
- To improve community-based fisheries management in the fishing communities.
- To identify sites for artisans and small-scale enterprises.
- Relocation of traders and hawkers from CBD to outskirts.
- Reduce pressure on markets in AMA.
- To promote tourism along beach front.
Goal: - Enhance participation in decision-making and ensure adequate, efficient and transparent service delivery.
- To strengthen the institutional capacity of the AMA Sub-Metros.
- To ensure strong collaboration between AMA Departments/Units to respond to the needs of the Public and the Private Sector.
- To restructure and strengthen the capacity of AMA Departments/Units for efficient and transparent service delivery.
- To improve participation in decision-making and public attitude towards the physical environment.
- Development of AMA City Hall Complex