Population density of a place is the total number of people in an area in relation to the size of that area. The population density of the municipality is 550.5 persons per sq. Km much higher than the national density (79.3) a little lower than that of greater Accra Region (89.5). This indicates great pressure of population on land resource or what the land can generate. This means that pressure on social amenities like hospitals and schools and this could be an opportunity for some service providers.
It is also necessary to take locality differences into account. The most populous locality, as reflected in the table above is Gbawe followed by Awoshie and Anyaa. What this means is that the population largely concentrated in Gbawe, Awoshie and towns developed around the Accra Metropolitan area.
This should not be surprising because these centres happen also to be the areas with many economic and social infrastructural facilities. Balance of spatial distribution of the population is not likely to be achieved unless the opportunities for improvement in the lives of the people are more evenly distributed. These locality differences have policy implications.
Household refers to all the people living in a house according to the dictionary definition. In the Ghanaian context, a household refers to a people who share common things in a house especially when they eat from the same source. There is an average of 6 people to a household. Siblings usually share the same room with their parents at the tender age in the rural areas.
The main religious groups in the municipality are Christian, Islamic and Traditional. The Christian religion is dominating in the Municipality followed by Islam and the traditional religion rates the last but not the least. During the research, some respondents answered no to religion. Meaning they do not practice any of the three popular religions. Moral aptitude is expected to be high given that the people practice their religions.
Age and Sex Composition
Using the 2000 population census, the female population as at the year 2000 is 50.1% of the total population whiles males make up the other 49.9%. The age structure is typical of less development economies, which are characterised by large proportion of children (under 15 yrs) and a small proportion of elderly persons (over 64 yrs).
The proportion of the population under 15yrs in 2000 (34.8%) is a reflection of high fertility where as the proportion of the elderly is (3.0%) is also a reflection of low life expectancy. Age ratios................... For instance the dependency level is lower for males, mainly because the younger dependency group is lower. (34.0 as against 35.0 females). Males constitute 50.2 % of the population translating into a sex ratio of 99.1 females to 100 males.
The people that fall within the active working population is relatively higher in the municipality. Large proportion of the population is below 15 years and few elderly persons. There is also child labor incidence in the municipality. This is an indication that the labour force base of the municipality is promising since there are a lot of under 15 years children.
During the research, figures of migration could not be gotten from respondents. However a description of migration trends indicates that, there has been a low migration rate from 2006 to date. Migration from one community to another has also been a characteristic of most migrants. There are also those who travel abroad in search of greener pastures but this is relatively lower than the national trends.
There has been seasonal rural urban migration in agricultural zones of the Municipality. Most of the settlers are into serious agriculture; that is vegetable production and livestock rearing. Land owners request for it from settlers after some years to build. this is having a negative effect on vegetable production and agriculture.
During the second quarter of the year 2009 however, it was observed that immigrants who moved from other parts of the country to the northern coastal part of the Municipality made a lot of positive impact on agriculture through tomatoes and onion farming especially in Kofikwei, Ashifla and Weija agricultural zones.
i) Traditional Set-up
The Ga Traditional leaders or chiefs are considered as the leaders in authority within their areas of jurisdiction. One peculiar characteristics of the traditional set-up is that most of the chiefs in the various communities in the municipalities have autonomy over their area of jurisdiction and can be classified as Traditional Chiefs. Some of the Traditional areas are Gbawe, Ablekuma, Weija, Krokrobite, Aplaku, Bortianor, Lamba, Oshiyie, and Tettegu among others.
However, there exist some Traditional Chiefs in the Northern part of the Municipality (hinter land) with sub or divisional Chiefs serving under them.
Attitude and Practices of the people.
Multiple land sale, indiscriminate dumping of refuse and littering, child labour in the urban and peri-urban areas, chieftaincy disputes and some of the negative practice of the people.
Communal spirit is very necessary for the growth of a community especially in the traditional stages of a community. The people within this Municipality have the spirit of communalism and provide communal labour as and when it is required. In recent times however, most of the Donor Projects that draw their labour from the communities have complained of poor attitude towards communal labour especially in the urban communities of the Municipality.
The main festival of the people in the area is “Homowo” which goes with the sprinkling of “kpokpoi” to pacify traditional gods as well as collective eating of their favourite kpokpoi. Common dances are Kpanlogo, Agbaja, Gome, Boboobo, Kolomashie, Kinka, Asafo and Obonu.
Chieftaincy disputes, land disputes, boundary disputes, indiscriminate development without adhering to the layout are the main causes of conflicts in the Municipality. Such conflicts retard the development of the Municipality.
Land conflicts have been observed in the Tuba irrigation area and Bortianor. Irrigated and arable lands used for farming are being turned very fast into estate development. This attitude of selling land by the chiefs in the area has generated conflict between farmers and the landlords during the period under review.
The issue of multiple land sales is a major cause of conflict in the Municipality.
Ethnicity and Religion
The dominant tribe in the Municipality is Ga followed by the Akan, Ewe and of course a mixture of other tribes who have migrated to the municipality to either trade, farm and to do other menial jobs. Christianity is the main religion of the people in the municipality followed by Islam
1.4.4 Spatial Analysis
Spatial Polarization of infrastructure is a characteristic that dates back to the colonial system. The geographical pattern of resource investment has not changed much with an inequitable distribution of resources (economic and social infrastructure) to the disadvantage of the rural sector of the economy. Most of the socio-economic facilities are concentrated in some key communities like Mallam, Weija and Gbawe.
The Ga South Municipality is Peri-Urban with both a linear and nucleated settlement pattern. Most of the rural areas of the municipality are characterized by a dispersed settlement pattern.
Road network/transport system is the main surface accessibility in the district. One of the major urban roads in the Greater Accra is located in this Municipality. There are so many untarred trunk roads in this Municipality.
The Scalogram below gives an overview picture of the distribution of facilities in the municipality.
Refer to pdffiles attached for tables