The size, age and sex structure of a population have a lot of implications for a number of socio-economic indicators such as the welfare of the people. Changes in a population are mainly through fertility, mortality and the rates of migration, which to a large extent, are influenced by age-sex composition. This chapter discusses the size, distribution, age and sex structure, migration, fertility and mortality characteristics of the population in the Ellembelle District using data from the 2010 PHC.
Population Size and Distribution
Population size refers to the number of individuals in a given population within a specified period of time. The 2010 PHC data shows that the total population of the Ellembelle District is 87,501 constituting 3.7 percent of the total population in the Western Region. Out of this population, 42,317 (representing 48.4 percent) are males while the remaining 45,184, (representing 51.6 percent), are females (Table 2.1). The table further indicates that the 0-4 age group constitutes the highest proportion (i.e. 13.6 percent) of the population in the district followed by the age groups 5-9 with 13.2 percent, and the 10-14 years group represents 12.6 percent. The 80-84 and 85 years and older age groups constitute the lowest proportion of the population with both age groups reporting a proportion of 0.7 percent each.
The distribution by sex also reveals high proportions of the population in the younger age groups 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years with the higher age groups reporting smaller proportion.
The Table shows that majority of the population in The District (i.e. 79.4%) live in rural areas while only 20.6 percent live in urban areas. Thus, the population in the district is predominantly rural. The table further shows that the female population that lives in urban areas is slightly higher (20.9%) than their male counterparts (20.2%). However, the opposite is the case in rural areas where the male population of 79.8 percent outweighs the female population of 79.1 percent. The sex ratio of the district is 94 males to 100 females.
The population pyramid of the district (Figure 3.1), like that of the country depicts a youthful one made up of a large number of children and a small number of elderly persons, giving it a conical 21
shape. The table shows that the proportion of the population under 15 years (39.4%) constituted the largest proportion of the total population in the district; followed by the 15-24 age group (21.0%) while the lowest proportion was the population aged 60 years and older (6.7%). Again, the data show that the female population generally outnumbers that of the male population in all the age groups except the under 15 age group where the proportion of the male population (50.5%) was slightly higher than the females (49.5 percent).
The population pyramid for the Ellembelle District (Figure 2.1) reflects a typical scenario in a developing country’s population, with broad base denoting a youthful population, and a narrow apex, indicating fewer aged persons.
The relationship between the population aged 0-14 years and 65 years and above and the population aged 15-64 years determine age dependency, which is measured per 100 working population. The age-dependency ratio by sex in the district is presented in Table 2.2. There is a relatively high age dependency ratio in the district (83 persons per 100 of the population). This means that at least every one person within the working age group has about one person in the dependent age group to care for. The table further indicates that more children depend on the population 71 persons per 100 of the working population as compared to the old age dependency ratio 12 persons per 100 of the working population. The female dependent population (42/100) is slightly higher than the male population (40/100) in the district. While the proportion of male child dependents (36/100) is slightly higher than that of the female (35/100), the opposite is the case for old age dependency ratio where the proportion of female population (7/100) is slightly higher than that of the male population (5/100).
Fertility, Mortality and Migration
Fertility refers to the actual birth performance i.e. frequency of childbearing among a population and fecundity denotes the physiological capacity of a woman, man or couple to reproduce (International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 1982 as cited in the 2010 PHC, National Analytical Report).
Crude birth rate (CBR)
Crude birth rate (CBR) is defined as the number of births in a given year divided by the number of people in the population in the middle of that year. Table 2.3 shows that Ellembelle has a CBR of 27.6 that is almost the same as the Western regional figure of 27.2. Prestea Huni-Valley and Mpohor-Wassa East Districts have the highest figures for CBR in the region with 31.3 and 31.0 respectively.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The 2010 Census Data (Table 2.3) indicates that the district again has a relatively higher TFR of 3.62 as compared to the regional figure of 3.57 and again the Mpohor-Wassa East District, which has the highest figure of 4.40 in the region.
General fertility rate (GFR)
Table 2.3 further shows that the Ellembelle district has a GFR of 89.7, which is slightly higher than the rate for the Western Region which is 89.2. Thus, the CBR of 27.6., the TFR of 3.62 and GFR of 89.7 for the Ellembelle District are generally higher than that of the region whose figures are 27.2, 3.57 .and 89.2 respectively.
Table 2.4 indicates that a total of 78,856 children were ever born to 31,328 females 12 years and older in the district. From this figure of children ever born, 67,514 survived out of which 34,421 are males while the remaining 33,093 are males.
Again, there are 18,660 children ever born to females aged 60 years and above out of which 9,043 are males and 9,617 females. More females (7,184) have survived than males (6,565) out of the total of 13,749 surviving children.
The table further shows that the lowest number of children ever born is 43 and is to females aged 12-14. From this figure, surviving males ware 19 (out of 23 ever born) while surviving females ware also 19 (out of 20 ever born). In general, more females ever born have survived than their male counterparts for all the females aged 12 years and above in the district.
Mortality is one of the three components of population dynamics and plays a critical role in determining the growth of a population. The level and pattern of mortality is a reflection of the health status of a population. Thus, indices of mortality have been used as indicators of socio-economic development. Generally, mortality data is used in calculating probable life span of population which are then used by institutions such as insurance companies to set premiums. Results from mortality analyses underpin disease control programmes and in identifying viable health and related programmes which advance human survival (GSS, 2013a)
Childhood mortality measures the risk of dying from birth to age five years. The specific measures considered are infant, child and under-five mortality rates (in years).
Table 2.5 captures household deaths (within 12 months preceding the census) by age, cause of death and sex in the Ellembelle District. The table indicates that households in the district have recorded 471 deaths within 12 months preceding the census out of which 234 are males and 237 are females. Again, the proportion of deaths in the district caused by accidents, violence, homicide, or suicide is 56 out of which 36 are males and 20 are females.
The table indicates that 37 infant mortalities are recorded in households 12 months preceding the census in the district. Out of this figure, males account for 21 while 16 are females. Only one male infant died as a result of accidents, violence, homicide, or suicide in the district.
Again, the table shows that there are 92 under-five deaths in the district in households for the period 12 months preceding the census. Out of the figure, 56 are males while 36 are females. Only one (1) male death could be attributed to accidents, violence, homicide, or suicide in the district. In general therefore, more males died within 12 months preceding the census than females in the district. 25
Table 2.5 presents the age specific death rates reported in the Ellembelle district. The table shows a significant under five mortality rate among the male population (about 9 child deaths per 1000 of the population within the age category) as compared with females (about 6/1000) in the district. The highest death rate is among the population aged 70 years and older with the rate among males significantly higher (about 44/1000) than females (about 27/1000). It is followed by the population aged 65-69 years with the rate again higher among males (about 31/1000) compared with that among females in the age category (about 15/1000).
In general, the male population in The Ellembelle District has a higher death rate than their female counterparts.
Table 2.6 represents population, deaths in households and crude death rate by district in the Western Region. Out of a total population of 87,501bin the district, 471 deaths have been recorded in the households with a CDR of 5.4. The CDR for the district is less than that of the region which is 6.2 percent.
Table 2.7 shows the age specific death rates. From the table, age specific deaths are highest among age group 70 and older which stands at 27.4. This is closely followed by age group 40-44 which is 10.6 and then those in the under-five age group, 6.1. The age group with the least age specific deaths is 5-9 years which accounts for just under one percent (0.9%.
The questions on migration in the 2010 PHC included place of birth, duration of residence, emigration and nationality. On the basis of the answers to the place of birth question, migrants are defined as persons who were enumerated in a different place from where they were born, while non-migrants were persons who were enumerated in the place they were born.
Table 2.8 shows that the district has a total of 18,653 migrants. . Out of this figure, 33 percent have lived for 1-4 years in the district while 16 percent have stayed for less than a year in the district. Significantly, 16 percent of the migrants have lived in the district for more than 20 years - the longest time spent by migrants in the district.
The table further indicates that out of the total number of migrants in the district, 10,401 (56%) are born elsewhere in the Western region. From this figure, the highest proportion (35%) have lived for 1-4 years in the district while those who have lived for less than a year and 5-9 years constitute approximately 15 percent each.
For the proportion of the migrants born elsewhere in another region in the country, the table further shows that the highest proportion 21.9 percent (1,810) were born in the Central Region while the lowest proportion of 5.4 percent (442) were born in the Greater Accra region.
A significant number of the migrant population (1,338 or 16.2%) was born outside the country. This significant number may be attributed to the presence of refugees (from both Liberia and Cote d’Ivoire) in the district. The data also indicates that migrants who have lived in the district for between one year or less and 4 years constitute about 50 percent and that may be attributable to the recent oil find located not too far from the district could have influenced this movement into the district.
Date Created : 11/20/2017 3:37:03 AM